Push Hands Definitions
Rigorous scientific scrutiny is widely unknown amongst practitioners of the Chinese routines of Tuishou/ Pushhands. DTB series in English contribute to the intriguing developments in modern science concerning the terms "Tai Chi Chuan (Taijiquan)", "Qigong" and "Tuishou (Pushhands)".
By using the English terms "Push Hands" and "Free Pushing Hands" German speakers already attribute a special meaning to tuishou and their synonyms "Schiebende Hände", "Klebende Hände", "Schlagende Hände", "Fühlende Hände" and "Zerstreuende Hände".
Push Hands Definitions
There is a plethora of recent fact-checking showing the fallacy of many current definitions of push hands / tuishou. Still most practioners shy away from facing these intriguing findings. Their clinging to "political correctness", myth and sterotypes has become a part of the problem rather than its solution.
An interesting Side Note: Beliefs vs facts ...
This behaviour, as odd it may seem to scientists, is all too human. Here is a good example: In an interview with Brian Greene Richard Dawkins relates to his childhood. He was very gullible at that time and while playing hide and seek his friend claimed to be able to make himself invisible - and in fact he could not find him.
Mr. Dawkins´ comment in the interview: For me then it was more plausible to believe his supernatural powers than to think he lied to me.
Push Hands Definitions - Wikipedia vs DTB-Association
All over the globe you find contrasting definitions of tuishou as practitioners interprete the routines in many different ways. One popular notion is this and we can use it as a starting point:
Tui Shou (Chinese: 推手, pinyin tuī shǒu; Wade-Giles: t’ui shou, internationalle Push Hands / Pushing Hands) references two-person training routines, especially in Taijiquan but also in other internal martial arts. Their characteristics are to yield instead of resist according to the principle of "taiji (yin yang philosophy)". The meaning is indeed profound and should not be underestimated: Instead of countering force with force one should yield to incoming forces and redirect them to the opponent. This resilience follows the laws of nature and often leads to success.
Wikipedia´s user generated content reflects the most common notion:
Pushing hands works to undo a person's natural instinct to resist force with force, teaching the body to yield to force and redirect it. ... Push hands allows students to learn how to respond to external stimuli using techniques from their forms practice.
Pushing hands, Push hands or tuishou (alternately spelled tuei shou or tuei sho) is a name for two-person training routines practiced in internal Chinese martial arts such as Baguazhang, Xingyiquan, Taijiquan (tài jí quán), and Yiquan. It is also played as an international sport akin to Judo, Sumo and wrestling, such as in Taiwan, where the biannual Tai Chi World Cup is held.
This wiki definition and all its wide spread variants of pushing hands have been criticised for a long time by the German umbrella association DTB (Deutscher Taichi-Bund - Dachverband für Taichi und Qigong ev) as being false and too narrow. Those "explanations" are misleading and barely scratch the surface. They are merely "politically correct". They are illogical, arbitrary and ideologically distorted. Moreover these opinions are unverified as wiki rightly states (This article needs additional citations for verification).
The DTB recommends fact checking and uses the following interpretation:
"Tuishou (chinese 推 手, pushing hands or push hands)" denotes the partner forms of "internal martial arts (内 家, Neijia)". Their internals are based on "Taiji (太極, highest principle, yin-yang unit)". Their effectiveness is based on "dynamic flexibility and this potential ultimately forms "the soul of Asian martial arts". Push hands therefore encompasses much more than "Taijiquan & Co".
Sources: Definition of Pushing Hands / Tuishou and TSYR-Kaisho Sensei Tobin E. Threadgill (co-author of the book Shindo Yoshin Ryu - History And Technique). Also see Tai Chi Qigong Tuishou Ausbildung Hannover und Ausbildung Berlin.
INTERPLAY: used to refer to the activities commonly known as “pushhands” or tui shou: the interaction of two or more players practicing Taijiquan principles through planned or unplanned exercises involving physical contact. Source: Jay Dunbar, Dissertation: Let A Hundred Flowers Bloom! A Profile of Taijiquan Instruction in America.
Push Hands - Sino-japanese research
Sino-japanese research of the German umbrella association DTB (Deutscher Taichi-Bund - Dachverband für Taichi und Qigong ev) shows the fallacy of all too many current definitions of push hands / tuishou. These intricate partner routines serve as a linchpin in the field of internal martial arts. Their potential ultimately forms "the soul of Asian martial arts". Push hands therefore encompasses much more than "Taijiquan & Co".
But opinions on pushing hands differ widely and depend on who you ask. The typical is "Push Hands is what I want it to be"! This diversity causes misunderstandings and reduce the immanent potential of these intriging partner drills. Sooner or later many adepts find themselves in an impasse. See article " Tuishou - Opinions, Quotes and Thoughts".
And moreover one additional problem with definitions is that you need other words for them... And if you choose the wrong conceptions it makes matters worse and raises a plethora of questions like "what constitutes an internal martial art?", "are there criteria, which differentiate internal from external?" and last but not least "how to deal with lost information?"
See also for this topic: Source: https://www.amazon.de/-/en/Tony-Annesi/dp/1545107602
Comparative Aiki in Action: An Eclectic Approach to Traditional Holds, Locks, and Throws
What would it be like if you had a repertoire of aiki techniques that multiplied your current knowledge exponentially? Why does each style claim to have "the right way" but no style does it the same way? What is the difference between dojo "exercise" technique and functional "street" technique? Does one lead to the other? If you are interested in expanding your wushu knowledge, you have picked the right book. Master instructor ------- offers his overview of the methods most common among wushu styles - and the comparative value of each so your wushu repertoire can grow exponentially.
Tipp E-Learning at home: Pushing Hands Lernen, Ausbildung, Seminare.
DTB-Studygroup Yang Style Taijiquan:Freies Push Hands / Free Pushing Hands.
Push Hands Definition proposed by the German DTB
Die Tuishou-Pushhands-Definition des DTB-Dachverbandes inclusive der Synonyme ("Schiebende Hände", "Klebende Hände", "Schlagende Hände", "Fühlende Hände" und "Zerstreuende Hände") lautet:
"Tuishou (chin. 推手, Hände-Schieben, international Push Hands)" bezeichnet die Partner-Formen "Innerer Kampfkünste (内家, Neijia)". Deren "Internals" beruhen auf "Taiji (太極, Höchstes Prinzip, Yin-Yang-Einheit)". Ihre Effektivität beruht auf "dynamischer Flexibilität und dieses Potenzial bildet letztlich "die Seele asiatischer Kampfkunst". Damit umfaßt Push Hands viel mehr als "Taijiquan & Co".
Siehe auch Infografik zur Wiki-Definition: Free Pushing Hands: Freies Pushhands Lernen und Stellungnahme des DTB-Verbandes Freies Push Hands / Tuishou . Source: DTB-Workgroup Hannover: Push Hands Meetings 2000 - 2021.
"Push Hands Internals": Pushhands enables you to build internal skill and power. This is sometimes referred to "Internal Push hands".