Push Hands Definition
By using the English terms "Push Hands" and "Free Pushing Hands" German speakers already attribute a special meaning to tuishou and their synonyms "Schiebende Hände", "Klebende Hände", "Schlagende Hände", "Fühlende Hände" and "Zerstreuende Hände".
Push Hands Definition - Wikipedia vs DTB-Association
All over the globe you find contrasting definitions of tuishou as practitioners interprete the routines in many different ways. One popular meaning is this:
Tui Shou (Chinese: 推手, pinyin tuī shǒu; Wade-Giles: t’ui shou, internationalle Push Hands / Pushing Hands) references two-person training routines, especially in Taijiquan but also in other internal martial arts.
Wikipedia´s user generated content reflects the most common notion:
Pushing hands works to undo a person's natural instinct to resist force with force, teaching the body to yield to force and redirect it. ... Push hands allows students to learn how to respond to external stimuli using techniques from their forms practice.
Pushing hands, Push hands or tuishou (alternately spelled tuei shou or tuei sho) is a name for two-person training routines practiced in internal Chinese martial arts such as Baguazhang, Xingyiquan, Taijiquan (tài jí quán), and Yiquan. It is also played as an international sport akin to Judo, Sumo and wrestling, such as in Taiwan, where the biannual Tai Chi World Cup is held.
This wiki definition and all its wide spread variants of pushing hands are criticised by the German umbrella association DTB (Deutscher Taichi-Bund - Dachverband für Taichi und Qigong ev) as being false and too narrow. Those "explanations" are misleading and barely scratch the surface. They are merely "politically correct". They are illogical, arbitrary and ideologically distorted. Moreover these opinions are unverified as wiki rightly states (This article needs additional citations for verification).
The DTB recommends fact checking and uses the following interpretation:
"Tuishou (chinese 推 手, pushing hands or push hands)" denotes the partner forms of "internal martial arts (内 家, Neijia)". Their internals are based on "Taiji (太極, highest principle, yin-yang unit)". Their effectiveness is based on "dynamic flexibility and this potential ultimately forms "the soul of Asian martial arts". Push hands therefore encompasses much more than "Taijiquan & Co".
Sources: Definition of Pushing Hands / Tuishou and TSYR-Kaisho Sensei Tobin E. Threadgill (co-author of the book Shindo Yoshin Ryu - History And Technique). Also see Tai Chi Qigong Tuishou Ausbildung Hannover und Ausbildung Berlin.
INTERPLAY: used to refer to the activities commonly known as “pushhands” or tui shou: the interaction of two or more players practicing Taijiquan principles through planned or unplanned exercises involving physical contact. Source: Jay Dunbar, Dissertation: Let A Hundred Flowers Bloom! A Profile of Taijiquan Instruction in America.
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Tipp E-Learning at home: Pushing Hands Lernen.
DTB-Studygroup Yang Style Taijiquan:Freies Push Hands / Free Pushing Hands.
Push Hands Definition proposed by the German DTB
Die Tuishou-Pushhands-Definition des DTB-Dachverbandes inclusive der Synonyme ("Schiebende Hände", "Klebende Hände", "Schlagende Hände", "Fühlende Hände" und "Zerstreuende Hände") lautet:
"Tuishou (chin. 推手, Hände-Schieben, international Push Hands)" bezeichnet die Partner-Formen "Innerer Kampfkünste (内家, Neijia)". Deren "Internals" beruhen auf "Taiji (太極, Höchstes Prinzip, Yin-Yang-Einheit)". Ihre Effektivität beruht auf "dynamischer Flexibilität und dieses Potenzial bildet letztlich "die Seele asiatischer Kampfkunst". Damit umfaßt Push Hands viel mehr als "Taijiquan & Co".
Siehe auch Infografik zur Wiki-Definition: Free Pushing Hands: Freies Pushhands Lernen.